Echocardiographic Ischemic Memory Imaging Through Complement-Mediated Vascular Adhesion of Phosphatidylserine-Containing Microbubbles.

This study hypothesized that microvascular retention of phosphatidylserine-containing microbubbles (MB-PS) would allow detection of recent but resolved myocardial ischemia with myocardial contrast echocardiographic (MCE) molecular imaging.
Techniques for ischemic memory imaging which can detect and spatially assess resolved myocardial ischemia are being developed for rapid evaluation of patients with chest pain.
MCE molecular imaging with MB-PS was performed 1.5 h, 3.0 h, and 6.0 h after brief (10 min) myocardial ischemia in mice; data were compared to selectin-targeted microbubbles. MCE molecular imaging with Sonazoid (GE HealthcareAmersham, United Kingdom), a commercially produced phosphatidylserine (PS) – containing agent, was performed in separate mice at 1.5 h and 3.0 h after ischemia-reperfusion; and in dogs undergoing 135 min of ischemia and 60 min of reflow as well as in closed-chest nonischemic control dogs. The mechanism for MB-PS attachment was assessed by intravital microscopy of post-ischemic muscle and by flow cytometry analysis of cell-MB interactions.
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